Dictionaries in Japan 日本における「辞書」の歴史

This evening (July 17) I gave a 75-minute talk to a general audience of Kōgakkan University students, faculty, staff, and members of the local community. I was pleased that so many people took the time to attend, and I greatly enjoyed hearing their thoughts on the topic of dictionaries. Below are some of the resources I covered in my talk along with ones that I think might be useful for further reading.

The image in the background of my title slide is from Kūkai’s Tenrei banshō meigi 篆隷万象名義. The image is displayed at 「空海の書・その実像について」, but the original text is held by Kōsanji 高山寺.

Authoritative Dictionaries

These four dictionaries are some of the most authoritative ones available in their respective areas. They are critical aids for researchers, but a little unwieldy for daily use, and are probably not ones you would read for pleasure.

  • Nihon Daijiten Kankōkai 日本大辞典刊行会. Nihon kokugo daijiten 日本国語大辞典. Tokyo: Shōgakkan 小学館, 1974.
  • Simpson, J.A. and Wiener, E.S.C., eds. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Skrzypczak, E., P.Snowden, P., and Watanabe Toshio 渡邉敏郎, eds. Shin waei daijiten 新和英大辞典, 5th ed. Tokyo: Kenkyūsha 研究社, 2003.
  • Takebayashi Shigeru 竹林滋. Shin eiwa daijiten 新英和大辞典. Tokyo: Kenkyūsha 研究社, 2002.

Notable Dictionaries in Japanese History

This is by no means an exhaustive list of dictionaries in Japanese history, but the ones below were mentioned today in my talk.

  • Shinji [Niina] 新字. Unknown.
  • Yōshi kangoshō 楊氏漢語抄. Unknown.
  • Shigeno no Sadanushi 滋野貞主, ed. Hifuryaku 秘府略. 831.
  • Kūkai 空海, ed. Tenrei banshō meigi 篆隷万象名義. 830?
  • Vocabulario da Lingoa de Iapam com a declaração em Portugues, feito por alguns Padres e Irmaos da Companhia de Iesu. Nagasaki: 1603. (日葡辞書)
  • Ōtsuki Fumihiko 大槻文彦. Genkai 言海. 1891.
  • Shinmura Izuru 新村出, ed. Kōjien 広辞苑. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten 岩波書店, 1955.

Books about Dictionaries (General Audience)

Some modern dictionaries have fascinating stories behind their creation, and a few authors have great advice about how to read dictionaries for pleasure. I mentioned several in my talk today.

  • Akasegawa Genpei 赤瀬川原平. Shinkai-san no nazo 新解さんの謎. Tokyo: Bungei Shujun 文藝春秋, 1999.
  • Brewer, Charlotte. Treasure-House of the Language: The Living OED. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.
  • Iima Hiroaki 飯間浩明. Jisho wo amu 辞書を編む. Tokyo: Kōbunsha, 2013.
  • ———. Jisho ni noru kotoba wa doko kara sagashite kuru no ka?: wa-do hantingu no genba kara 辞書に載る言葉はどこから探してくるのか?ワードハンティングの現場から. Tokyo: Disukabā Twentiwan ディスカヴァー・トゥエンティワン, 2013.
  • ———. Sanseidō kokugo jiten no himitsu 三省堂国語辞典のひみつ. Tokyo: Sanseidō 三省堂, 2014.
  • Ishiyama Morio 石山茂利夫. Nihongo tametsu sugametsu: imadoki no jisho jūyonshu no kotoba tanken 日本語矯めつ眇めつ―いまどきの辞書14種のことば探検. Tokyo: Tokuma Shoten 徳間書店, 1990.
  • ———. Imayō kokugo jisho 今様こくご辞書. Tokyo: Yomiuri Shinbunsha 読売新聞社, 1998.
  • ———. Kokugo jisho jikenbo 国語辞書事件簿. Tokyo: Sōshisha 草思社, 2004.
  • ———. Kokugo jisho dare mo shiranai shusse no himitsu 国語辞書 誰も知らない出生の秘密. Tokyo: Sōshisha 草思社, 2007.
  • ———. Ura yomi fukayomi kokugo jisho 裏読み深読み国語辞書. Tokyo: Sōshisha 草思社, 2012.
  • Matsui Shigegazu 松井栄一. Kokugo jiten ni nai kotoba: Kotoba sagashi no tabi no tojō de 国語辞典にない言葉―言葉探しの旅の途上で. Tokyo: Nan’undō 南雲堂, 1983.
  • ———. Kokugo jiten wa kō shite tsukuru: Risō no jisho wo mezashite 国語辞典はこうして作る 理想の辞書をめざして. Tokyo: Minato No Hito 港の人, 2005.
  • ———. Deatta Nihongo gojū man go: Jisho zukuri sandai no kiseki 出逢った日本語・50万語:辞書作り三代の軌跡. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobō 筑摩書房, 2013.
  • ———. Nihonjin no shiranai Nihon ichi no kokugo jiten 日本人の知らない 日本一の国語辞典. Tokyo: Shōgakkan, 2014.
  • Ritsumeikan Daigaku Shirakawa Shizuka Kinen Tōyō Moji Bunka Kenkyūjo 立命館大学白川静記念東洋文字文化研究所, ed. Shirakawa Shizuka wo yomu toki no jiten 白川静を読むときの辞典. Tokyo: Heibonsha 平凡社, 2013.
  • Sankyū Tatsuo サンキュータツオ. Gakkō de wa oshiete kurenai!: Kokugo jiten no asobikata 学校では教えてくれない! 国語辞典の遊び方. Tokyo: Kadokawa Gakugei Shuppan 角川学芸出版, 2013.
  • Seidosha 青土社, ed. Yuriika March, 2012: Tokushū: Jisho no sekai ユリイカ2012年3月号 特集=辞書の世界. Tokyo: Seidosha 青土社, 2012.
  • Shea, Ammon. Reading the OED: One Man, One Year, 21,730 Pages. New York: Perigee Trade, 2008.
  • Tazawa Kō 田澤耕. retsuden: Kotoba ni tsukareta hitobito〈辞書屋〉列伝 – 言葉に憑かれた人びと. Tokyo: Chūkōron Shinsha 中央公論新社, 2014.
  • Tokita Masamizu 時田昌瑞. Jisho kara kieta kotowaza 辞書から消えたことわざ. Tokyo: Kadokawa Magajinzu 角川マガジンズ, 2014.
  • Winchester Simon ウィンチェスターサイモン. Hakase to kyōjin: Sekai saikō no jisho OED no tanjō hiwa 博士と狂人―世界最高の辞書OEDの誕生秘話. Tokyo: Hayakawa Shobō 早川書房, 2006. (This is a translation of the original English book)

Digital Resources

For general use, I think ALC and Jim Breen’s site are useful for translation. Dictionary.com is a handy reference for English language definitions. However, there are much more reliable resources available, especially if you have access to JapanKnowledge, or you are willing to pay for a subscription or a DVD version.

Online

DVD

  • For all of the software I mentioned today, instructions on how to use the software, and comments on the electronic dictionaries, please see “CD-ROM Dictionaries for Translators and Language Learners 翻訳・語学のためのCD-ROM辞書” at http://www.christopher-mayo.com/?p=475

Dictionaries to Read for Pleasure

These are a few of the dictionaries that I have enjoyed reading. I am sure there are more. However, I haven’t read them yet! Please let me know if you come across others you think I should add to the list.

  • Gamer, Bryan A. Garner’s Modern American Usage. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. (A little difficult in places for language learners, but well-written, and quite interesting)
  • Hornby, A.S., ed. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 8th edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. (Good for advanced English language learners)
  • Ōtsuki Fumihiko 大槻文彦. Genkai 言海. 1891.
  • Oxford University Press. Oxford Basic American Dictionary for learners of English. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. (Good for beginning and intermediate English language learners)
  • Shirakawa, Shizuka 白川静. Jitō 字統. Tokyo: Heibonsha平凡社, 1994.
  • ———. Jikun 字訓. Tokyo: Heibonsha平凡社, 1995.
  • ———. Jitsū 字通. Tokyo: Heibonsha平凡社, 1996.
  • ———. Jisho wo tsukuru 辞書を作る. Tokyo: Heibonsha平凡社, 2002.
  • ———. Jōyō jikai 常用字解. Tokyo: Heibonsha平凡社, 2004.
  • Yamada Tadao 山田忠雄, et al., eds. Shinmeikai kokugo jiten 新明解国語辞典, 7th ed. Tokyo: Sanseidō 三省堂, 2014.

Works Cited

Comedy Central. “The Daily Show with Jon Stewart.” July 15, 2014. http://thedailyshow.cc.com/

Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/

JapanKnowledge ジャパンナレッジ. Nihon kokugo daijiten 日本国語大辞典. http://japanknowledge.com/

———. JapanKnowledge ジャパンナレッジ. Jitsū 字通. http://japanknowledge.com/

Kūkai 空海, ed. Tenrei banshō meigi 篆隷万象名義. 830?

Nihon Daijiten Kankōkai 日本大辞典刊行会. Nihon kokugo daijiten 日本国語大辞典. Tokyo: Shōgakkan 小学館, 1974.

OED. Oxford English Dictionary. http://www.oed.com/

Ōtsuki Fumihiko 大槻文彦. Genkai 言海. 1891.

Shigeno no Sadanushi 滋野貞主, ed. Hifuryaku 秘府略. 831.

Shinji [Niina] 新字. Unknown.

Shinmura Izuru 新村出, ed. Kōjien 広辞苑. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten 岩波書店, 1955.

Shirakawa, Shizuka 白川静. Jitō 字統. Tokyo: Heibonsha平凡社, 1994.

———. Jikun 字訓. Tokyo: Heibonsha平凡社, 1995.

———. Jitsū 字通. Tokyo: Heibonsha平凡社, 1996.

———. Jisho wo tsukuru 辞書を作る. Tokyo: Heibonsha平凡社, 2002.

———. Jōyō jikai 常用字解. Tokyo: Heibonsha平凡社, 2004.

Simpson, J.A. and Wiener, E.S.C., eds. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.

Vocabulario da Lingoa de Iapam com a declaração em Portugues, feito por alguns Padres e Irmaos da Companhia de Iesu. Nagasaki: 1603. (日葡辞書)

Winchester Simon ウィンチェスターサイモン. Hakase to kyōjin: Sekai saikō no jisho OED no tanjō hiwa 博士と狂人―世界最高の辞書OEDの誕生秘話. Tokyo: Hayakawa Shobō 早川書房, 2006.

Yōshi kangoshō 楊氏漢語抄. Unknown.